Because building codes require insulation be covered, you'll have to build wall "frames" before installing any kind of insulation. Install 2x2 wood boards every 16" along the basement walls and pressure-treated 2x4 boards for the bottom plates on the floor. Most basements are an average height of 8', but you may have to trim a couple of inches from the bottom of the vertical boards in order for them to fit on top of the bottom plate. These boards should sit just below the sill plate on top of the foundation wall. If you have windows in your basement, frame around them using 2x2 boards.
Attach the bottom plate to the floor using "liquid nails" adhesive, then drill holes with a masonry bit every 16" into the floor. Drive concrete screws into the holes using a power screwdriver. Next, attach the vertical 2x2 boards to the wall following the same steps. Start from the top and drive in screws every 2". Using a level, be sure the boards are level and perfectly vertical before attaching them to the wall with the concrete screws.